Carltonplc.co.uk http://carltonplc.co.uk Fri, 06 May 2016 08:36:48 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.6.1 History of Carlton Communications Plc 1983 – 2002 http://carltonplc.co.uk/history-of-carlton-communications-plc-1983-2002/ Fri, 06 May 2016 08:18:24 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=45 It is interesting to some readers that we share the same name as a now deceased communications company. We present the history of Carlton PLC here for posterity as it is not available elsewhere on the web any longer (originally was published here: http://files.investis.com/) Carlton became a public company in 1983. It had subsidiary companies … Continue reading

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It is interesting to some readers that we share the same name as a now deceased communications company. We present the history of Carlton PLC here for posterity as it is not available elsewhere on the web any longer (originally was published here: http://files.investis.com/)

Carlton became a public company in 1983. It had subsidiary companies engaged in television and photographic production facilities, programming, specialist publishing, exhibition contracting and the design and sale of professional television equipment. Prior to 1983, Carlton was a private company established by Michael Green, the current Chairman, and his brother David Green, who now sits on the Board as a non-executive director.

During the mid-1980’s Carlton acquired a series of post-production ‘facilities’ houses, including The Moving Picture Company and TVi based in London, and Complete Post and Gordon Enterprises based in the US. It also acquired Abekas Video Systems, a designer and manufacturer of image manipulation products for the television industry.

In 1987 Carlton made its first move into mainstream British broadcasting with the acquisition of a 20% stake in Central Independent Television P.L.C., the ITV licence holder for the East, West and South Midlands.

Later in 1987, with the acquisition of Zenith Productions, Carlton became the largest independent television film and programme maker in the UK, producing high quality drama such as ‘Inspector Morse’, game shows such as ‘Wheel of Fortune’, music specials, documentaries and children’s programming.

In October 1988, Carlton bought 100% of Technicolor for $780m. Thus the company became the world’s largest producer of pre-recorded videocassettes and processor of motion picture film, servicing the large Hollywood studios and software companies, including Disney, Warner, DreamWorks, Microsoft and Hewlett Packard.

The acquisition of Technicolor enhanced Carlton’s position in the international media world, expanding its geographical coverage with facilities throughout the USA, the UK, Holland and Italy.

In the late 1980s the world television market began to enter a period of exceptional growth spurred on by deregulation and the consequent increase in channels and demand for programming. Change in the UK alone during this decade included the advent of Channel 4, breakfast television, satellite broadcasting and the development of cable.

Carlton bought UEI plc in 1989, incorporating Quantel and Solid State Logic, which designed and manufactured professional video and sound products. Satellite, cable and new terrestrial television services starting in the UK and Europe were equipping their facilities; existing broadcasters were investing in the latest technology and new independent facilities companies were entering the market to service the anticipated growth. (Carlton disposed of Solid State Logic in 1999 and Quantel in 2000).

In the same year, Paramount Pictures purchased a 49% stake in Zenith Productions, giving Carlton access to an international programme distribution network and a wealth of experience in television programme production for the US and world market.

By the end of the 1980s Carlton was focused on the supply of products and services to the television, film and video industries worldwide. Carlton’s market was global; its video and sound television products sold to 47 countries; it was Europe’s leading video post-production facility; it was the world’s largest processor of motion picture film and the world’s largest producer of pre-recorded videocassettes.

In 1991 Carlton won the London Weekday ITV Licence to broadcast for a period of ten years from January 1993 with the option to renew for a further ten years. The London Weekday Licence was the biggest ITV franchise reaching some 4.4m homes and enjoyed the highest share of ITV’s net advertising revenue. It was named Carlton Television.

In November 1991 Carlton acquired a 20% stake in GMTV which had been awarded the National Breakfast Television Licence, replacing TV-am.

In the same year, Carlton Books was launched to publish books for the leisure and entertainment markets.

In January 1992 Carlton acquired Pickwick Group, now called Carlton Visual Entertainment, which publishes and distributes video and DVD titles from the Carlton library and other sources.

Carlton Television started broadcasting on 1st January 1993. In March of that year, Carlton acquired an 18% stake in ITN, the national and international news provider. Then in November, following the Government’s relaxation of ownership restrictions, Carlton announced an offer for the remaining 80% of Central that it did not already own. The offer became unconditional in February 1994.

Later in 1993 Carlton’s 51% of Zenith Productions was divested in compliance with ownership regulations set out in the 1990 Broadcasting Act.

Carlton Television and Central together made up the largest part of ITV network at the time, with approximately 30% of ITV net advertising revenue, equivalent to an estimated 22% of total UK television advertising revenue. The two regional broadcasters covered some 20 million people, representing 36% of the UK population.

As well as holding the broadcasting franchise for the East, West and South Midlands, Central owned programme production studios in Nottingham (now called Carlton Studios) and a film and television distribution and programme library business (now called Carlton International) which distributes television programme and film content in the UK and the international marketplace.

Meanwhile, Abekas and ImMIX, a professional broadcast products company that had been set up in 1991, were sold to Scitex Corporation for $52m and $21m respectively.

Other activities in 1996 included the acquisition of Cinema Media (renamed Carlton Screen Advertising), extending Carlton’s advertising sales capability from the small to the big screen. Carlton Screen Advertising now accounts for 57% of all UK cinema advertising and is the market leader for delivering film trailers, posters and other promotional material to cinemas throughout the UK and Ireland.

The acquisition of Westcountry Television, the ITV licence holder for the South West of England, took Carlton’s coverage to 39% of the UK population.

The acquisition of Action Time in 1996, one of Europe’s most successful producers of entertainment programmes, and Planet 24 in 1999 helped to expand Carlton’s production base to meet the growing international demand for popular shows. Carlton now makes programmes for all major terrestrial networks as well as cable and satellite channels. In the US, Carlton America has found success with made-for-television movies and is now co-producing 17 television movies a year for the US and international marketplaces.

Carlton continually invested in its television programme and film library. By the end of 1999, Carlton’s library held 2,000 films and 18,000 hours of television programmes. It owns the Rank, Rohauer, Romulus, Korda and ITC film collections which include titles such as Sophie’s Choice, Brief Encounter, Richard III, The African Queen, The Eagle Has Landed, Birth of a Nation and the Carry On films.

Technicolor

Technicolor continued to strengthen its position in the film and video markets by becoming an integral part of the Hollywood supply chain. The company built up a complex distribution and fulfilment network and expanded into new disc-based, (or ‘optical’), media formats.

Technicolor offered services from processing the dailies (or ‘rushes’) for the director on location, to printing the film prints, delivering them to the cinemas, duplicating the videocassettes, DVDs and CD-ROMS and distributing them directly to the retail stores.

During 1997 and 1998 Technicolor continued to expand geographically to meet growing demand with the acquisition of Metrocolor (a film processing plant in London), the opening of a videocassette production plant in Denmark and the acquisition of videocassette production facilities in Spain, Italy and Mexico.

DVDs were launched in the US in 1997 and in Europe in 1998. After setting up its own optical disc facility in 1994, Technicolor acquired Nimbus CD International in June 1998 for $280m, the world’s leading independent manufacturer of optical discs. Technicolor was therefore able to satisfy its customers’ demands for parallel production and distribution of DVDs and videocassettes.

In 1999 Technicolor continued expansion with the acquisitions of wholly owned businesses in Canada and Australia and started the development of digital cinema.

Carlton sold Technicolor to Thomson multimedia in 2001 for $1.9bn

Digital Television

In 1997, British Digital Broadcasting, a company jointly owned by Carlton, Granada and BSkyB was awarded three digital terrestrial television licences and in November 1998 started broadcasting under the name of ONdigital, later changed to ITV Digital. For regulatory reasons, BskyB was required to sell its shareholding but supplied its important programming to ITV Digital, a 50/50 joint venture of Carlton and Granada. It was the world’s first multi-channel television service received through an aerial and by 2002 had over 50 channels, exclusive sports deals, e-mail, interactivity, pay-per-view and 1.2m subscribers.

Carlton today

Further consolidation in ITV during 2000 led to Carlton acquiring HTV in and being awarded the Scottish Television and Grampian Television airtime sales contract. Carlton now broadcasts to 26m people – almost 50% of the UK population – and accounts for 46% of ITV’s net advertising revenue. Carlton has renewed all its four ITV licences for a further ten years.

Carlton next focused on free-to-air television broadcasting and advertising sales, content production and distribution, and cinema advertising.

Carlton PLC is now closed.

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The Future Of Television And Communications http://carltonplc.co.uk/the-future-of-television-and-communications/ Tue, 26 Apr 2016 08:14:20 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=33 Though the landscape of television and communications is changing rapidly, the industry is not slowing down. In fact, it is an increasing industry, especially in the areas of content marketing, social media and public relations. There is an increasing number of channels on television, as well as many programs being produced exclusively for the web. … Continue reading

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Though the landscape of television and communications is changing rapidly, the industry is not slowing down. In fact, it is an increasing industry, especially in the areas of content marketing, social media and public relations.

reqemli1There is an increasing number of channels on television, as well as many programs being produced exclusively for the web. This means that, while there may be less of a concentration of jobs, they certainly will still be available. Advertising is also likely to increase; not only in traditional formats but also in new ways, such as affiliate marketing for web-based productions. So, while we might see a visible shift in the way television is made and monetized, with less centralization, it is safe to assume that the industry will continue to grow.

Corporate communications is also a booming industry. Not only do customers expect more from businesses and companies and expect them to react to criticism quickly, but they also demand more and more information. Consumers are taking an increasing interest in the ethics and morals behind what they consume and a business must respond with advertising and marketing accordingly.

With the influx of social media, criticism and complaints are now commonplace and very public. An efficient response to such matters is imperative and this is only likely to continue, as more people become connected to the internet.

The final and most important facet of the future of communications is that everybody who wants to own a business will have to have a knowledge of how to conduct themselves in the public forum. A savvy public demands that even a small business will need to maintain a reputable profile. In a world where bad reviews of anything are readily available online, understanding the importance of this is crucial to surviving in the digital age.

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Can You Market Anything? http://carltonplc.co.uk/can-you-market-anything/ Mon, 25 Apr 2016 08:07:17 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=29 Marketing is a multi-million dollar industry and, as the world becomes ever more mediated, it shows no signs of slowing down. At the most basic level, marketing is communication between a business and the consumer. However, its goal is more complex and this communication is framed in such a way that it persuades an individual … Continue reading

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marketing concept with business graph and chart hand drawing on blackboard

Marketing is a multi-million dollar industry and, as the world becomes ever more mediated, it shows no signs of slowing down. At the most basic level, marketing is communication between a business and the consumer. However, its goal is more complex and this communication is framed in such a way that it persuades an individual to buy the products and services offered by the business. But can you market anything? Even things that people don’t want? The short answer is yes!

Cigarettes are the famous example of a highly successful marketing campaign. At the turn of the twentieth century, very few women were smokers. An advertising campaign, which took the form of women smoking at a parade in America, rocketed the sales; even though cigarettes are unnecessary and, in theory, most people wouldn’t want to buy them. That is, of course, until they become glamorised through clever marketing.

It is not just products themselves that can be marketed, but whole lifestyles and behaviours. Health, political ideas, ideologies and life practices can, and have, all been the subject of marketing campaigns in the past. Millions are spent by governments and organisations, not to promote a product, but to promote an idea, party or person.

Of course, things are never that black and white. While it is possible, in theory, to market anything, it doesn’t always pay off. Many marketing campaigns fail, even if they are very good. You have to fill a gap in the market. If something is already filling that gap, or people don’t believe that they need that product, then the task is much harder. The reason cigarette campaigns work so well is because they are advertised as stress-busting and sexy; who wouldn’t want to feel less stressed and more beautiful? So, find your niche and you really can market anything.

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How Social Communication Is Changing Media http://carltonplc.co.uk/how-social-communication-is-changing-media/ Sun, 24 Apr 2016 08:05:22 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=26 Social media has fractured the traditional communications landscape as we once knew it and has generated a whole new protocol for the media industry. Indeed, many see the introduction of social media as the first step in dismantling traditional media formats. Nowadays, everybody can be a journalist, actor or political commentator and publish their own … Continue reading

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social-mediaSocial media has fractured the traditional communications landscape as we once knew it and has generated a whole new protocol for the media industry. Indeed, many see the introduction of social media as the first step in dismantling traditional media formats. Nowadays, everybody can be a journalist, actor or political commentator and publish their own material online. It’s tricky to say exactly how powerful social media is and to judge whether it will replace traditional formats, but it’s clear that it has made a significant impact in several areas.

Many cite the use of social media for the success of the Arab Spring back in 2010, something which is difficult to discredit. But what about the media landscape? It is a fact that print newspapers are in decline because of the internet and that many have set up their own blog or website, to varying degrees of success. But it seems that the main change is not just replacing TV shows, the online newspaper or radio broadcasts, but rather incorporating new media forms into the traditional formats. Most factual based shows now invite the viewer to get involved on social media and express their thoughts, comments and opinions. We’re seeing fusion rather than a battle between the two.

Another way the media are responding to social media is by using it as a catalyst for different material and a source of information. Journalists use it as a way to find stories and garner more details on events. Rarely a day goes by when a debate show doesn’t cover a social media story and we’re all struggling with not only the ethics of social media, but also the legality of our actions when using it.

It seems unlikely that social media will replace traditional media completely, as people still enjoy listening and watching informed professionals but it is having an ever more significant impact on the way we mediate our society.

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The Rise Of Reality Television http://carltonplc.co.uk/the-rise-of-reality-television/ Sat, 23 Apr 2016 08:02:17 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=23 The TV landscape has changed dramatically over the past decade, with reality television now playing an integral part in TV schedules across the world. A loose definition of reality television is ‘unscripted television’, however, what this means in reality is very broad. It can encompass anything from talent shows to live topical debate programs. Murray … Continue reading

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reality-tv-logoThe TV landscape has changed dramatically over the past decade, with reality television now playing an integral part in TV schedules across the world. A loose definition of reality television is ‘unscripted television’, however, what this means in reality is very broad. It can encompass anything from talent shows to live topical debate programs. Murray and Ouellette theorised that there are eight sub-genres of reality TV, ranging from dating shows to makeover programs. However, the idea that reality television is totally new is not true. There are several examples of the genre dating back to the 1950’s and 1960’s, though it is fair to say that it used to be a marginal part of television and now it dominates the TV landscape.

But why is reality television so popular now? In its inception, it has been argued that reality television was a kind of social experiment; something which is evident in the Big Brother franchise, with the format having been screened in over forty countries. Due to its unscripted nature, this genre of television is relatively cheap to produce, compared to something scripted which needs a writer, several sets and multiple actors or presenters. This is cited as the most common reason for so much reality television being commissioned.

There are many arguments about why reality TV has become so popular with viewers. Initially it was a novelty, but why does it still remain so popular? Many believe the answer lies in the inclusion of normal people. From makeover shows to cooking contests, people enjoy seeing normal people on television. This is probably closely related to the idea that reality television can make virtually anybody famous, which, in theory, it very well can. People enjoy the possibility that they could potentially gain success and fame through a simple TV show.

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The power of TV advertising http://carltonplc.co.uk/the-power-of-tv-advertising/ Fri, 22 Apr 2016 07:57:55 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=20 Though the rise of the internet and social media has slightly shifted the paradigm of advertising, television is still the most influential medium for reaching large numbers of people. Another benefit of the television is that it reaches all demographics; the internet is used much more by young urbanites than the older generation and thus … Continue reading

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tv-advertisingThough the rise of the internet and social media has slightly shifted the paradigm of advertising, television is still the most influential medium for reaching large numbers of people. Another benefit of the television is that it reaches all demographics; the internet is used much more by young urbanites than the older generation and thus has market limitations.

Thus is the power of TV advertising that it has changed very little since its d├ębut in the 1950’s. Though the industry has rapidly expanded due to the increasing number of channels on television. How much you pay for an advert will vary dramatically depending on a number of variables. Due to time limitations, you will often pay by the second for a television advert and, therefore, keeping an advert short can reduce costs. The time slot and show in which you want your advert to be aired will also greatly influence the cost. An advert to be aired at 2am between an all night game show is going to cost considerably less than one broadcast in a popular show on Saturday night prime time television.

However, airing an advert in a cheaper time slot may not always be to your detriment. To maximise the efficiency of your advert, it’s always wise to consider the viewer demographics at a particular time. Adverts shown late at night or in the daytime, when viewing figures tend to be lower than in the evening, may be more beneficial for those advertising alcohol, gambling or products with adult themes.

One way in which the industry has had to adapt for the modern era is through monetizing catch up services. Many individuals now watch television at a later date or on demand, and they often skip the adverts when they have recorded something using a cable box. This is problematic, as people are still paying for the commercial adverts, but fewer people are seeing them. Many have tried to increase their reach by showing adverts in catch up services, which cannot be skipped to increase exposure.

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Value of corporate communications http://carltonplc.co.uk/value-of-corporate-communications/ Thu, 21 Apr 2016 07:56:39 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=17 In a world which is ever more connected and company profiles ever more visible, corporate communications are becoming ever more important. Though also consisting of internal communications between different departments, the main focus of this article is on the external side. The most rudimentary element of corporate communications is branding and marketing. This is used … Continue reading

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iStock_ValueIn a world which is ever more connected and company profiles ever more visible, corporate communications are becoming ever more important. Though also consisting of internal communications between different departments, the main focus of this article is on the external side.

The most rudimentary element of corporate communications is branding and marketing. This is used to maintain the knowledge of the company and advertise its products. This can take several forms, from TV adverts (though expensive, they remain popular) to using social media and Google Ads. This type of communication is carefully planned and executed. Some large companies will have in-house teams to deal with these matters, while many will employ a third-party agency.

A growing area in corporate communications is corporate responsibility. In short, this can be understood as the way in which a company or business operates ethically. In modernity, many more people are taking an interest in the way something is produced; fair trade is a classic example of this. The communications department is responsible for making it clear to the market demographic the steps a company have undertaken to become more ethical and responsible.

One of the most unpredictable facets of corporate communications is crisis management. This is the damage limitation and response of a company in light of something negative. This could be a media story, government criticism, a new law or a failure in the product. Bad press can be damaging to the finances of a company and therefore, it is critical to respond in a fast, efficient and fulfilling manner.

The final element to corporate communication is not down to the perception the general public have of them, but the one that potential investors do. In this case, it is crucial that the company is seen to have not only a strong financial record, but also public support.

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How to make a TV show http://carltonplc.co.uk/how-to-make-a-tv-show/ Wed, 20 Apr 2016 07:54:17 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=14 Getting a TV show to air can be a long a gruelling process. From pitch to pilot, there are several hurdles to overcome. But many people have done it before and many people will do it again. Here you can find out about the different steps that you will encounter when you’re developing a television … Continue reading

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1264245921-The-TV-Show_1Getting a TV show to air can be a long a gruelling process. From pitch to pilot, there are several hurdles to overcome. But many people have done it before and many people will do it again. Here you can find out about the different steps that you will encounter when you’re developing a television show.

The inception of every TV show starts with a pitch to the network; though how detailed this pitch varies dramatically. If you’re a complete outsider approaching a production company or network, then you really want to have a well thought out pitch. However, within companies themselves and in less formal settings, ideas for new shows are constantly thrown around. Understand your position and plan your pitch accordingly.

Once you have the go ahead for a pilot, then you need a formal script the cast and crew can work with. Some will require a formal script before this point, while others will simply commission on a great idea; especially for those with a proven track record of delivering great TV. So, no matter if you’re writing it yourself of working with a team, this is the time to make your script solid.

Once you have a script, the production company can begin to assemble the cast and crew. It’s not just about what’s shown on screen. The show needs a director, editor, camera crew, make-up artists and so forth. Once the cast and crew have been chosen, the rehearsal period can begin. This is when many of the changes will happen. Cast, crew, TV executives and writers will all be expressing their thoughts and opinions. Even though this might seem frustrating, everybody is just trying to make the best show possible.

Finally, after much tweaking, rehearsal, marketing and press for the new show, it can finally go on to be broadcast.

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How to get into the media http://carltonplc.co.uk/how-to-get-into-the-media/ Tue, 19 Apr 2016 07:52:39 +0000 http://carltonplc.co.uk/?p=11 It’s a notoriously difficult industry to crack and with the growth of online media, the jobs are becoming few and far between. However, there is still a wide variety of jobs available in the media, even if the role of the traditional journalist is in decline. There are three main career paths into the media, … Continue reading

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How-to-Get-into-the-Media-and-Entertainment-Business-A-Guide-for-Business-School-Graduates-and-Students-mediumIt’s a notoriously difficult industry to crack and with the growth of online media, the jobs are becoming few and far between. However, there is still a wide variety of jobs available in the media, even if the role of the traditional journalist is in decline. There are three main career paths into the media, none of which is valued above the other.

The first route is university. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean that you have to get a media studies degree. Politics, history and languages are well respected degrees which a potential employer will value just as much as a media studies qualification. It’s advisable to gain as much experience as possible, while at university, to set you apart from your peers when you start to apply for a graduate scheme.

There are several apprenticeship schemes, especially in the area of TV production, aimed at those who don’t want to undertake university education. You’ll often be paid for these but wages can be low. However, you should view this as your training and consider the fact that you won’t have any debts upon completion of your qualification.

The third, and most ad hoc route, is through work experience and your own tenacity. This involves work experience at a local paper, taking on unpaid work to get your foot in the door and generally begging people to give you experience. Though this might seem a little tenuous, a surprising amount of people have actually made it into the industry this way and gone on to have highly successful careers.

Often, you might even combine these, for example getting some work experience at a local paper while you’re studying. However, don’t be perturbed, if you have the ambition and the talent to back it up, it’s still perfectly possible to make it in the media, even in today’s competitive landscape.

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